github explained

Github: everything you need to know about the code hosting platform

Github is a website that provides a cloud service for developers to store and manage their code. It also includes monitoring and control of changes made to it. Today, it is one of the most popular ways to host open source projects and share content. Whether you want to retrieve source code from the website, transfer it to a local machine or develop your Android application, there are many projects supported by the site. Github has several features that may be of interest to many.

This article gives you an overview of Github and shows how to use it. By the end of this tutorial, you will be able to create your repository, both local and remote, and transfer files from a local to a public repository. In addition, we will also show you how to create multiple branches within a single repository to contribute to any project hosted on Github.

What is Github?

As mentioned above, Github hosts and shares projects and allows you to contribute to others’ projects. The site supports all programming languages and file types, including images, videos, spreadsheets, and even text files. Although the trend suggests that Github specializes in software development, the platform also hosts projects that do not necessarily contain code. For example, Microsoft uses the site to store all its documentation on Azure.

On the other hand, the watchword of the website is “collaboration.” It challenges developers to collaborate on a project, whether working in groups or with other members. Alternatively, they can collaborate with people who want to work on a particular project and want to help. The platform is open to suggestions, and anyone can raise issues. Some manage to provide new ideas on how the site should work or contribute code to someone else’s project. By hosting your project, Github gives you a whole new team of contributors.

Differences between Git and Github

The two terms are often used next to each other and sometimes even confused, although they are different. Indeed, Git refers to a distributed version control tool that can work equally well on a computer. It is used to manage the history of the sources of your project. As for Github, it is the cloud platform built around the Git tool. Otherwise, Git is used to connect to Github to perform tasks like pushing or pulling code.

Note that cloud hosting services, such as Github, are used with Git, while Git can work without Github. There is no need to create an account to perform version control and work collaboratively.

Advantages of GitHub

Using GitHub has several significant advantages. First of all, this platform facilitates project management. Developers and project managers can collaborate, update work, and track changes to gain transparency and meet deadlines.

Packages also increase security, as they can be shared privately, within a team, or directly with the open source community. Packages can be downloaded from GitHub for use or reuse.

Another strong point of GitHub is team management. All team members can stay organized and synchronized, and various moderation tools are provided to keep everyone focused.

Pull requests help develop and propose new code and review it. Team members can debate implementations and proposals before changing the source code.

Various tools to identify and analyze vulnerabilities in the code also make it more secure. Throughout the software supply chain, the code is protected. Finally, the fact that the code and documentation are hosted in the same place is very convenient.

The disadvantages of Github

Although it is a beneficial tool for building websites and creating beautiful blogs, Github also has several drawbacks.


GitHub does not offer private repositories. For high-value intellectual property, this puts the entire process in the hands of GitHub. In addition, anyone with a login can connect to GitHub, which creates the risk of security breaches. Moreover, like many sites, GitHub is constantly targeted by hackers. Some clients/employers only allow code on their own secure internal Git as a principle.


Pricing is another potential drawback of GitHub. Some features and online repositories are locked behind a SaaS paywall, and some functionality and online repositories are locked behind a paid SaaS portal. For a large team, the price can go up quickly.

Because of the costs, those who already have a dedicated IT team and their internal servers are often better off using their own internal Git system. However, most users do not find the costs outrageous.

Here is a good example of a quality Github account we have been following lately!


What’s new with JavaScript in 2022 ?

JavaScript is a very popular development language. In this article, we will analyze why it is so popular. We will also talk about some new features in JavaScript following the new features introduced in the ECMAScript2021 standard. These new features allow to reduce the code size and to maximize its efficiency.

JavaScript’s increasing popularity

According to the study conducted by SlashData via its survey State of the Developer Nation, JavaScript is at the top of the ranking of the most used programming languages in the world. The latter has indeed gained more than 5 million followers in less than 3 years and now has more than 12.4 million users. JavaScript is ahead of Python with 9 million users, Java (8.2 million users), C/C++ (6.3 million users), PHP (6.1 million) and C# (6 million).

JavaScript can do virtually anything

JS is a very popular language because of its versatility. With it you can develop any part of the application development chain: Full Stack. You can use JS on any project on any platform. You can develop mobile applications via React Native, Capacitor or Cordova. The applications will have the native features of mobile devices (phone, tablets, etc.)

With ReactJS, VueJS or Angular frameworks, you can build quite advanced web applications. Most web pages on the net use JavaScript to make their content dynamic. Desktop applications are not left out with Electron. You can create software with it. With engines such as Unity, it is possible to create 2D or 3D video games with JavaScript. Famous software is developed in JavaScript, including Slack, Skype, Discord, Visual Studio Code, MailSpring, Atom. And finally, NodeJS is used for different scripts that can run on your PCs and servers.

JavaScript developer and the job market

JavaScript developers are in high demand. According to a study conducted by DevSkiller, nearly 70% of companies need a JavaScript developer. The latter can claim an annual income of more than 40K€ if he works in a company. He can also work as a freelancer with more flexible working hours.

What is the ECMAScript standard?

ECMAScript is a standard on which various programming languages such as JavaScript, ActionScript, JScript or TypeScript are based. It is also a language integrated into web browsers and used in application servers. The standard is standardized by the ECMA International organization. The first edition of the specifications was released in June 1997 and we are in the era of version 2021: ECMAScript21 which has just been approved.

What’s new in JavaScript

JavaScript developers should be aware of the new features supported by JavaScript following the specifications of the ECMAScript 2021 standard.
Let’s see some of these new features.


ReplaceAll() now allows you to easily change a character or a string in a given document. This question has been asked many times on the forums for JavaScript developers for ages and JavaScript finally includes an easy solution.

Thus, instead of writing :

const test = “this-is-a-test!”;
test.replace(/-/g, “_”)

Or else

this-is-a-test!’.replace(/-/g, “_”)

You can directly write :

const test = “this-is-a-test!”;
test.replaceAll(“-“, “_”)

Or you can write

‘this-is-a-test!’.replaceAll(‘-‘, ‘_’);


Promise already exists in JavaScript with 3 combinators: Promise.all(), Promise.race(), Promise.allSettled(). But ECMAScript21 introduces a last combiner: the Promise.any(). With the Promise.any() method, as soon as a promise is kept, it sends the value of the promise. If none of the promises are kept, the promise is broken with an AggregateError return, a new subclass of Error. Promise.any() does not behave like Promise.all(). The latter sends the values of all promises if and only if all promises in the iterable are fulfilled.

As an example, this code will send the value of promise2: “fast

const promise1 = Promise.reject(0);
const promise2 = new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 4000, ‘slow’));
const promise3 = new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 1000, ‘fast’));
const promises = [promise1, promise2, promise3];

Promise.any(promises).then((value) => console.log(value));

With Promise.all, the following code will display the values of the 3 promises after 6 seconds of waiting (after all the promises are kept)

const promise1 = new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 6000, ‘very slow’));
const promise2 = new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 4000, ‘slow’));
const promise3 = new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 1000, ‘fast’));
const promises = [promise1, promise2, promise3];

Promise.all(promises).then((value) => console.log(value));

The result would be :

(3)[“very slow”,”slow”,”fast”]

WeakRefs and Finalizers

Two new constructors have been introduced in the WeakRefs proposal. They are WeakRef and FinalizationRegistry. WeakRef or Weak References is used if we don’t want to keep an object in memory for a long time. So, if the program does not refer to the object, the memory will be freed. As for FinalizationRegistry, it is used to make callbacks once the object in memory has been collected.

Logical affection operators

You can combine the logical operators &&, ||, ?? with the assignment operator ‘=’. Thus, we can write

var x = 1;
var y = 2;
x &&= y;


var x = 1;
var y = 2;
if(x) {
x = y

And directly,

var x = 1;
var y = 2;
x &&= y;

Which will display “2”.

Numeric separators

It consists in introducing the hyphen under 8 (_) as a separator at the level of numbers. It can therefore be used as a separator of thousands to facilitate the reading of large numbers. Thus, this code will display “1500000”:

var separator = 1_500_000;

All in all, JavaScript is a very popular language and is not going to disappear any time soon. It is easy to learn and master. Knowing that with it, we can program almost anything, the career opportunities are real.

programming language

Which computer programming languages are trendy at the moment?

In the world of computer programming languages, diversity is the order of the day. There is at least one for every letter of the alphabet! As a beginner, developers are often at a loss when faced with the embarrassment of choice and have difficulty selecting the language that will propel their career. Depending on their interests or ambitions, it is essential to analyze the specific areas in which they wish to work to make an informed choice of the language that best suits them.

The evolution of computer programming languages follows that of the tools available on the web. Each new feature has its language. Procedural, functional or object-oriented programming, frameworks and libraries available or even ease of learning, each of these codes has its characteristics that give it a certain popularity among communities. And as for any language, the fashion is changing… Back to the computer languages that will be in the news in 2020.

The top computer programming languages of tomorrow

Lord of the computer programming languages, JavaScript has been at the top of the ranking for more than 7 years now. Historical and easy to learn, it benefits from an active community that produces numerous frameworks and libraries that are always more complete. The job of react developer in particular is a fashionable specialization that facilitates the creation of single-page web applications and is endorsed by the biggest names in the sector. We will come back to this.

PHP, despite its age, remains one of the darlings of developers. Its vast field of application and its simplicity of use make it one of the most commonly used interpreted scripting languages, notably thanks to its fast execution and foolproof stability. We can also mention Python, which is essential for those who want to work in the field of data science and artificial intelligence, or Swift, the native language that allows you to build IOS applications.

Choosing your language

Faced with the profusion of languages, it is necessary to select one’s own according to a central criterion: the field of application in which you wish to work. In the world of video games, C++ for PC games and C/C++ for consoles are part of the indispensable background to claim a position as a developer within a team. For the web, on the frontend, HTML/CSS and JavaScript remain essential to create a functional graphical interface.

PHP, Ruby or JavaScript (using NodeJS in particular) are the most used for data management for a website. Finally, for beginners, it is important to choose a language that will allow them to justify an attractive profile in the years to come. They should therefore always prefer a recent language (forget COBOL…) and one that can be useful in the expanding fields of artificial intelligence or mobile applications.

Becoming a React developer

Here, we will develop our article more specifically on a software library that could well become a favorite among developers in the years to come. React was created by Facebook in 2013 to allow developers to create single-page web applications. Its scope is only for the interface and it can be used with other libraries or frameworks like Agular for example. Its main asset is its flexibility, which makes the user’s experience more fluid by updating the browser only when necessary.

Chosen by Yahoo, Netflix, Airbnb or Sony to improve the performance of their sites, this free library encourages the creation and reuse of its components. In 2015, its versatility increases further with the release of React Native, a React-indexed framework that allows to create cross IOS and Android applications. Surely, everyone will be talking about React shortly!

microsoft GPT-3

This AI will be able to write programming code from natural language

Microsoft intends to open up application development to everyone, thanks to artificial intelligence. By integrating the GPT-3 linguistic model into its Power Apps, the firm allows the use of natural language to generate lines of code.

The Microsoft Build 2021 conference this week, aimed at developers, was an opportunity to discover the firm’s projects, such as the next generation of Windows. In his opening presentation, Satya Nadella, Microsoft’s CEO, also announced the use of artificial intelligence to assist in programming and allow a “no-code” approach.

This progress is made possible thanks to GPT-3, the largest linguistic model, capable of generating texts thanks to deep learning. GPT-3 is based on a neural network with 175 billion parameters, developed by OpenAI and based on the Transformer model. It will be integrated into Microsoft’s Power Apps to translate natural language into programming code.

Power Fx, a low-code programming language inspired by Excel

It is not about automatically generating entire programs, at least not at the moment. This new system allows to generate lines of code from a description of the desired action. The AI then proposes several possibilities, leaving it up to the user to choose the right one. Microsoft chose to associate it with the Power Fx programming language launched in March and inspired by Microsoft Excel. It is a “low-code” language, in other words, it allows you to create programs with little code.

The goal is to allow more people to create applications without having to master a programming language, and to address a growing shortage of developers. Microsoft has announced early access starting in June, in English only for users in North America.

Laravel 7 is available, a significant version with improvements in routing speed,

The Laravel development team has just released version 7 of the PHP framework a few months after the release of Laravel 6. It’s a significant new version of the framework with many new features, including Laravel Airlock, routing speed improvements, Blade component tags, custom Eloquent cast, a developer-oriented HTTP client, CORS first part support, etc. Here are more details about what the new version of the framework is about.

Fluent String Operations

Laravel’s Illuminate class offers a variety of useful functions for string manipulation. Laravel 7 now provides a more object-oriented and fluid string manipulation library built in addition to these functions. You can create a fluid Illuminateable object using the Str::of method. A variety of methods can then be chained to the object to manipulate the string.

Blade Component Tags and Enhancements

Blade components have been revised to allow tag-based rendering, attribute management, component classes, inline view components, etc. According to the development team, this overhaul of Blade components is significant. As such, you should refer to the complete Blade component documentation to learn more about this feature.

Custom Cast Eloquent

Laravel has a variety of integrated and useful cast types. That said, sometimes, you may need to define your own cast types. Now you can do this by defining a class that implements the CastsAttributes interface. Classes that implement this interface must define a get method and a set method. The get method is responsible for transforming a raw value from the database into a cast value, while the set method must transform a cast value into a raw value that can be stored in the database.

HTTP client

Laravel now provides a minimal and expressive API around the Guzzle HTTP client, allowing you to quickly make outgoing HTTP requests to communicate with other web applications. The Laravel skin around Guzzle focuses on the most common use cases and pleasant development experience.

MySQL 8 Database Queue Improvements

In previous versions of Laravel, the database queue was not considered robust enough for production use, due to blockages. However, Laravel 7 brings improvements to applications using MySQL 8+ as a database queue. By using the FOR UPDATE SKIP LOCKED clause and other SQL enhancements, the database driver can now be safely used in higher volume production applications.

Laravel Airlock

Laravel Airlock provides an ultra-light authentication system for SPAs (single page application), mobile apps, and simple token-based APIs. Airlock allows each user of your app to generate several API tokens on his or her behalf. These tokens can be assigned capabilities/scales that specify the actions the tokens are allowed to perform.

Improved caching speed

Laravel 7 includes a new method for mapping compiled and cached routes that have been cached using the “artisan route:cache” command. On large applications (for example, applications with 800 or more routes), these improvements can result in a speed improvement of about twice the number of requests per second on a simple “Hello World” benchmark. You don’t need to make any changes to your application.

online privacy

Why you need a VPN in 2020

VPN connections are by no means a new invention, but it is now that they are beginning to gain traction among the general public. While traditionally, their use was more common in the business environment, the great versatility of this type of connection, and their multiple applications make them increasingly popular.

But what is a VPN, and what advantages does it bring? That versatility we were talking about is the same that creates some confusion about it. As it is increasingly related to VPN connections with “evil” (with extensive quotes), as some of its applications include the leap of geographical blocks, greater anonymity in the network, or even blocking advertising.

What is a VPN?

Let’s start with the basics. VPN is the acronym for Virtual Private Network or virtual private network, which, unlike other more cryptic computer words such as DNS or HTTP, does give us quite precise clues as to what they consist of.

The keyword here is virtual because it is this property that generates the need for the VPN itself, as well as the one that allows VPN connections to offer you the multiple uses that we will see later.

To connect to the Internet, your mobile, PC, TV, and other devices generally communicate with the router or modem that connects your home to your Internet provider, either by cable or wirelessly. The components are different if you are using your mobile’s data connection (which includes its modem and talks to the telephone antenna). Still, the essence is the same: your device connects to another, which connects it to the Internet.

What are VPN connections for?

With the explanations above, you’ve probably already imagined a few situations in which VPN connections might be useful. It’s an open secret that they are especially crucial in the corporate environment, but their uses don’t end there at all. These are the primary uses of VPN connections.


The most apparent use of a VPN connection is interconnectivity in networks that are not physically connected, such as workers who are currently away from the office or companies with branches in several cities that need access to a single private network.

From a security point of view, allowing random access to a company’s network from the Internet is nothing short of insane. Even if access is password-protected, it could be captured at a public WiFi hotspot or sighted by a malicious observer.

Avoid censorship and geographic content blocks

With the heyday of the Internet and the picaresque of both content providers and users, other more playful uses of VPN connections have become popular, many of them related to a straightforward concept: misrepresenting where you are.

When you connect to a VPN, your device communicates with the VPN server, and it is the server that talks to the Internet. If you are in China and the VPN server is in the United States, generally, the web servers will believe that you are surfing from this country, allowing you to access the contents available only there, such as Netflix.

Similarly, this same logic can be used to access content that was censored or blocked in your country, but not where the VPN server is located. It is how millions of Chinese citizens manage to connect to Facebook and 3,000 other websites blocked in the country. This is best explained by this website Generation NT.

An extra layer of security

Although it is not strictly necessary, it is common for VPN connections to come with an encryption of the packets transmitted with them. It is normal to hear the recommendation that, if you need to connect to a public WiFi access point, at least use a VPN connection.

Logging in to your bank accounts while connected to a public WiFi network that you don’t trust is probably not the best idea in the world, as it’s relatively easy for a thief to capture packets unencrypted and get hold of your user accounts. It is where the extra layer of security that you can get through a VPN connection comes in, as the packets would be sent encrypted, so the listener probably couldn’t do anything with them.

P2P Downloads

Another everyday use of VPN connections is found in P2P downloads, which these days is generally synonymous with downloading from BitTorrent. Before you put a patch on my eye, a wooden leg, and force me to go through the keel, VPN connections also have used in P2P downloads even if you download completely legal torrents.

Unfortunately, it is common that Internet providers decide to stick their noses in how we send and receive zeros and ones on the Net. Although they love that we visit official web pages, that we download is not so funny: too much traffic, and you’re probably downloading something illegally.

Some providers completely block P2P downloads, while others boycott it to malfunction and give up on your own. Just as you can use a VPN connection to avoid censorship of your country, you can also sometimes prevent your ISP from boycotting your P2P downloads.

Advantages of VPN connections

Now that we know what a VPN connection is and what it’s for, it’s time to summarize a list of the advantages and disadvantages of using this technology. First, the positive side:

It works in all applications, because it routes all Internet traffic, unlike proxy servers, which you can only use in the web browser and a handful of other apps that let you configure the advanced connection options.

It connects and disconnects easily. Once configured, you can activate and deactivate the connection at will.

Additional security at WiFi access points, as long as the connection is encrypted, of course.

False of your location, as we have already seen in the previous section, a VPN connection is an effective way to avoid censorship or access content limited to a particular region.

Your Internet provider can’t know what you do on the Internet. Don’t you want your Internet provider to see that you spend hours watching videos of kittens on YouTube? With a VPN, they won’t know what you do, but be careful, the company that manages the VPN will.

Google achieved quantum supremacy

Quantum computer: Has Google achieved quantum supremacy?

It has been making quite a buzz in the last few days in the global news. It all started on 20 September 2019 with an article published in The Financial Times, a British economic and financial daily. One might be surprised that it is in this journal that a supposed revolutionary breakthrough in the field of mythical quantum computers is announced if it were not for Google. Above all, it has been said for years that these computers could easily break the codes on our credit cards, not to mention the fact that they could revolutionize scientific computing, for example, to develop entirely new drugs. 

In this case, The Financial Times reports a document written by Eleanor Rieffel, now missing from a NASA site but of which a complete copy can be found with the title Quantum Supremacy Using a Programmable Superconducting Processor, concluding that the Quantum AI Lab research team, led by John Martinis, would have eventually reached the Graal of Quantum Supremacy. 

Would John Martinis have operated a quantum computer – which is not a universal programmable quantum computer that can potentially run any algorithm of reasonable size for its memory and computing capacity – to perform in about 200 seconds a calculation that would require about 10,000 years on a conventional supercomputer, of the kind available to NASA and which can serve as a point of comparison? 

Sycamore, a calculator and not a quantum computer

Google’s quantum computer would be called Sycamore and would have more than 50 qubits (54 precisely and 53 would have been used). He would specialize in the simulation of what is called a random quantum circuit capable of handling 50 qubits. A random quantum circuit is an assembly of a random choice of quantum logic gates. All this remains to be confirmed, and for the time being, neither Google nor NASA is responding to any media messages on this subject, invalidating or confirming anything as a result. 

If the results announced are real, a significant step forward would have been taken, but we would still be a long way from a real revolution. It should be remembered that it is always difficult to combat the phenomenon of quantum decoherence, even with corrective codes, which quickly makes calculations carried out with a relatively large number of qubits imperfect or even impossible. However, it would take a lot to beat conventional computers in the majority of the tasks where they are used. 

Moreover, we know that there is no guarantee that a quantum algorithm to solve a particular problem with a quantum computer, which is specialized in its execution, will not one day be dethroned, in terms of the computing speed it allows, by a new classical algorithm. It’s happened before. 

Who are the web developers?

As a specialist in IT development, the developer is responsible for writing all or part of the IT programs necessary for the smooth running of the website for which he is responsible.

The lines of code he will write translate into computer language the functionalities requested from the site to meet the expectations of the client and the Internet user. Who are they?

The types of contracts offered to them

As the job offer far exceeds demand, it is logical to note that the vast majority of developers (82% more precisely) work on permanent contracts and a full-time basis. The low proportion (7%) of positions on internships or professionalization contracts is also due to this shortage of talent: companies are primarily seeking to attract them but also to retain them, thus favoring the permanent agreement.

The developer: a mostly male profile

Although IT is becoming more and more female, the fact remains that the job of Web developer remains mainly male: of the 270,000 developers, only 12% are women! At a time of digital transformation, and at the very moment when a real shortage of talent is being felt, the lack of appetite of female profiles for these professions is therefore still as evident as ever. It is also important to note that 6 out of 10 developers (58% to be precise) haven’t worked work for more than 10 years.

The level of training required by recruiters

But what are employers’ expectations in terms of training for these code experts? We can see that more than half (56%) of recruiters are looking for developer profiles with a minimum of 4 years of higher education. We should note that the “Master Degree” profiles are increasingly in demand by companies. However, we can highlight the large proportion of self-taught coders (20%), proof that it is still possible, with a great deal of will and personal investment, particularly in the learning of the various programming languages, to carry out such an exciting and rewarding profession.

The most popular languages

Whether they are self-taught or the result of specific training, developers must have a perfect knowledge of the different languages used by companies. But what are they? In the list of languages most sought after by recruiters in 2018, Java is in the first place, with 27% of the offers studied citing it as a prerequisite. It is used in the Android environment and not the easiest to understand and control. However, many applications and video games use it. In the second place, cited in 21% of recruiters’ offers, is JavaScript, which is mainly used on the front end. These two languages are also among the developers’ top five favorites.

In these two rankings, there are other languages, popular among both recruiters and developers, such as Python (also known as one of the easiest to learn), C++ (widely used in the video game industry) and C# (mainly used in development on the Microsoft.NET platform). On the other hand, if SQL (primarily used in database exploitation) is in third place in terms of citation by recruiters in their offers, it is absent from TOP 5 of the programming languages preferred by developers. The same is true for PHP, which is mentioned in 16% of job offers and is widely used in web development.

Alternatives to WordPress: 3 CMS solutions to create a website

WordPress is today the most popular website creation tool in the world: according to W3Tech experts, 33% of all sites on the Internet are now powered by WordPress technology. While this content management system (CMS) has established itself as a global reference, there are some excellent alternatives to WordPress.

Below, we have therefore established a selection of CMS that are accessible to all, and that will allow everyone to create a site without any computer knowledge.

Drupal, an alternative for developers

Drupal is a CMS that was created “by developers for developers” and is therefore slightly more complicated to handle. Drupal is a content management solution that is intended for an audience with technical skills, and that’s why it may be less popular.

This disadvantage can also be an advantage: indeed, thanks to Drupal’s great flexibility, it is possible to obtain much more advanced results thanks to more advanced features. It will depend mainly on the technical skills of its user: if he is up to the task, he will obtain much more convincing results than on any other CMS.

Wix, a credible alternative to WordPress

If WordPress leaves very little flexibility to its users in modifying the basic model (without computer knowledge), Wix is a much more flexible – and much more efficient – editor. Today, it is an undeniable advantage in Wix that everyone will undoubtedly recognize. The company listed on the stock exchange has more than 109 million users. It offers a free solution, and its paid version provides a 14-day trial period.

On WordPress, you can edit your site at several levels – which can make the modification sometimes a little tricky. Indeed, we should note that design changes are not made in a single place and that there can therefore quickly be confusion.

Finally, if the significant advantage of a WordPress is to be open source and open to all developers, it is also a bit of a disadvantage. Wix is much more closed, but the features are not redundant. If we had to compare, WordPress would be an open “Android” solution while Wix would be more like “iOS” with a closed ecosystem. Each has its advantages and disadvantages.

Weebly, a reinforced CMS with Square?

Weebly offers a site template system that you can use to customize and create your site. Weebly keeps some advantages/disadvantages by leaving the possibility of being able to touch the technique (as with an HTML text editor, or the possibility of exporting its database to another hosting).

On the other hand, it may be regrettable that the site models are less aesthetically pleasing.

buy bitcoin in 2019

How to buy Bitcoin in 2019?

Would you like to learn how to buy Bitcoin? The most popular cryptocurrency accepted from all over the world has a growing number of applications allowing you to acquire it. We will, therefore, explain how to buy BTC and store it.

First step: find a good wallet dedicated to Bitcoin

Digital wallets exist to store Bitcoin until you want to spend it, exchange it for other cryptocurrencies…

Once you have chosen a wallet that includes all the features you value, upload it to the appropriate platform. For beginners, we recommend that you start with a simple wallet that will allow you to transfer Bitcoins.

These wallets can be downloaded for free, but some transaction fees may apply when you move bitcoins or crypto in general, from one account/wallet to another.

You will find below some good options listed below!

The Coinbase wallet is particularly suitable for beginners since it is linked to the Coinbase trading platform and is very easy to use… Which makes it the most popular trading platform in the United States. Once registered you have visibility on your wallet, and you can quickly and from any computer or mobile, modify, resell or exchange your resources directly from the platform.


Step 2: Choose the right trading platform

If you want to know how to buy bitcoin without going through a reseller, then you need to know how to use an exchange platform… Also called trading platforms.

There are many trading platforms with very different performances… Make no mistake… We will quickly write an article about blacklisted platforms.

Don’t forget to look also at the fees charged by the different exchanges when buying Bitcoin for example, and the payment methods available also.

Here is a small list of secure trading platforms:

Coinbase is undoubtedly the first suggestion we can make if you have never bought Bitcoins before. This platform is particularly suitable for beginners. Very easy to use, Coinbase also has excellent customer support. You will be able to access your wallet from both the desktop and mobile versions.

CEX is even easier for those who are already used to using trading and exchange platforms. CEX gives you immediate rates with the possibility to buy and resell easily… but their payment methods are a little limited.

If you want to take a shortcut to buy Bitcoins, you can choose LocalBitcoin or Bitquick. They will allow you to buy Bitcoin quickly without trading platforms in the middle.

However, be sure of yourself if you choose this option… Overall, it is quite easy to get screwed by buying BTC from individuals.


Step 3: Select your payment method.

purchase of crypto assetsThe different trading platforms accept different payment options. Exchanges accepting bank transfers or credit cards are numerous, but with a certain limit.

BTC purchases via Paypal, on the other hand, are very complicated. Coinbase offers a wide choice of payment options for achat bitcoin via paypal! Which makes it the ideal platform to buy Bitcoin when you start.


Step 4: Buy your Bitcoins and store them in your Wallet.

You will quickly realize that the different trading platforms tell you how much you can buy from Bitcoin (BTC) with a specific fiat amount (EUR or USD). The volatile nature of Bitcoin can cause the price to change drastically from one moment to another.

It means that even if you have a lot of money to invest, you will probably only buy a “fraction” of bitcoin. The trading platform will probably charge you for the transfer… They all do.

Important: your Bitcoin exchange, purchase or shipment may take time. Indeed, each transaction is verified by the blockchain. It often takes more than an hour for a trade to arrive on the target wallet.


Step Five: Be ready to use your Bitcoins

Whether you plan to sell your Bitcoin (hoping it will be profitable) or use it to buy something. Be prepared whatever happens and plan in advance what you want to do… indeed the BTC course moves so fast that you have to be ready.

privacy issues windows 10

Windows 10 uploads Activity History to Microsoft even when you reject it

Windows 10 sends your timeline or activity history to Microsoft, and does not seem to be asking for your permission ! It seems to log records of what you’re doing on your PC, and upload it to the cloud… but only if you’ve enabled this option. However, it seems that data collection takes place even when this option is disabled. This data is present online in the privacy control panel, demonstrating that collection takes place without users’ consent.

It all began with a thread on Reddit, by the user u/a_potato_is_missing where a user explains: “I completely deactivated the activity history and yet some applications are still listed in the privacy control panel of the Microsoft site. How can I stop this? “. The Activity History or Timeline logs all your interactions with computer applications and documents in the same way as your web browser does. Usually, it is possible to deactivate the Timeline under Settings > Privacy > Activity History.

Windows 10 collects your Timeline or Activity History

This section contains two options: “Allow Windows to collect my activities from this computer” to enable or disable the timeline and “Allow Windows to synchronize my activities from this computer in the cloud” to put your timeline in the cloud and synchronize it with all your devices. The problem is that even when the second option is off, Windows 10 sends the data to Microsoft servers. We were able to check this in our virtual machine where the option was never activated.

To make matters worse, clicking the “Delete” button in Delete activity history does not change anything: you can always consult your Timeline by consulting the page mentioned above. According to HowToGeek to disable this collection, you should go to the configuration pages of the diagnostic data collection in the configuration of your PC and choose Basic instead of Complete. The complete data collection, enabled by default, means that the information “about the websites you are looking for and how the applications and features are used” is sent to the Microsoft servers.

In other words, this extremely confused mess for the end user is a dangerous type, while pushing a large number of users to transmit this data to Microsoft without their knowledge. We hope that things will change and this will change quickly in a future update of the operating system.

Here is how you can deactivate this annoying feature:


Developers divided after Microsoft’s acquisition of GitHub

The image of an editor that is hostile to the open source community still sticks to Microsoft’s image for some developers.

These people have a very negative view of the repurchase of the GitHub code repository and are already preparing to switch to GitLab or BitBucket. Others take into account the radical shift towards open source made by Satya Nadella, CEO of Microsoft.

Some even predict the death of the code-share site. As expected, epidermal reactions immediately followed the announcement of the takeover, although rumors that had been circulating for a week reduced the surprise effect.

Several developers have stated that they will immediately abandon the Git-based open source repository (version management software designed by Linux creator Linus Torvalds). The two main competitors, GitLab and BitBucket, are ready to open their arms.

Will GitHub evolve like Skype or Mono?

Some of the developers who are worried about the acquisition talk about how Microsoft has made Skype evolve, which they say is poor. The open source software purchased in 2011 has gone from being a peer-to-peer communication tool to a cloud solution.

This is an analogy that others refute by considering that it is more logical in this case to refer to the acquisition of Xamarin whose team created the Mono open source development framework. According to them, the latter did not suffer the consequences of the purchase by Microsoft, but quite the opposite, according to some. Mono allows C# developers to write multiplatform code for Windows, MacOS, Linux, Android or iOS. Whether or not it is a sign of their desire to inspire confidence in developers, it is Nat Friedman, CEO of Xamarin and familiar with the world of open source, to whom Microsoft has entrusted the management of GitHub.

Many private repositories in GitHub

From Apple to Microsoft, Amazon, Google, Facebook or IBM, everyone uses GitHub to store code and collaborate privately in their software. But among them, the main contributor to the site hosting code is Microsoft, so keep in mind those who find it logical to see the editor of Redmond take the initiative. Since GitHub seemed destined for acquisition anyway (absence of CEOs, financial problems, and other problems), others were also interested.

In a tweet, a developer participating in the Windows Insider MVP program imagines with humor what another acquirer might have done: with Apple, projects limited to XCode, with Google, ads everywhere, with Facebook, sharing data with all projects, etc.

Microsoft has embarked on some of its most important GitHub projects under open source license, including PowerShell, the .NET framework and the Edge JavaScript engine, the website recalls.

Among the issues raised by the acquisition, a professor at the University of Ghent points out that many companies pay to work collaboratively on GitHub in private repositories. He considers it was potentially damaging that GitHub has sold its platform to a potential competitor of these companies. For him, this is an abuse of trust and is not considered a healthy situation, even if Microsoft is a good steward of Github’s legacy. Others point out to him that Microsoft will not venture to break this trust because that would wipe out the service. In comparison, Netflix is hosted by AWS, which in turn has a service that competes with Prime Video.

domaining and hosting explained

Design your website with PHP and MySQL and Launch it!

Your site is all beautiful, all clean, and ready to go live… but as it is on your hard drive, nobody else will be able to enjoy it!

So you’d like to upload it on the Web, but… you don’t know how.
We will discover in this article everything you need to know to send your site on the Web:

  • How to reserve a domain name?
  • What is a hosting provider and how does it work?

The domain name

Do you know what a domain name is?

get yourself a domain name

It is an address on the Web: is, for example, a domain name.

In this case, “php-qb” is the domain name itself. It is a name that we can generally choose freely, as long as no one has reserved it before us. It can contain letters and numbers.

The”.com” is the extension also called” TLD,” for a top-level domain. There is roughly one extension per country (.us for the United States,.ca for Canada, etc.).

However, there are also extensions used internationally such,.net,.org. They were initially reserved for commercial sites, organizations,… but for a long time, everyone can reserve them. .com is probably the most used extension on the Web.

Reserve a domain name

I want a domain name for my site too! How do I do that?

Then I have good news and bad news. As usual, we’ll start with the bad one:

  • – the down side: it’s not free…
  • + The up side: … it’s not expensive at all.

Indeed, a domain name costs between 7 and 20 dollars per year.

The price may vary depending on the extension. Thus, extension is generally offered at a lower price and can prove to be an exciting alternative. However, if you want a more “common” address, you should aim for extension.

To reserve a domain name, two options :

Go through a specialized registrar. It is a body that acts as an intermediary between ICANN (the organization that manages all domain names at international level) and you. Namecheap, GoDaddy are famous American registrars.

Even better: you can order the domain name at the same time as the hosting (this is what I recommend). This way, you kill two birds with one stone, since you will need the hosting and the domain name anyway.

In this chapter, we will see how to order a domain name at the same time as hosting; it is by far the simplest and least expensive solution for you.

The web host

fast hosting is really importantNow let’s take an interest in the host.

What is a host and why would I need it?

On the Internet, all websites are stored on individual computers called servers. Called avis hebergeur, these are usually very powerful computers, which stay on all the time. They contain the pages of websites and deliver them to Internet users who request them, at any time of day or night.

A server does not have a screen because, most of the time, it runs alone without there being any need to do anything on it. As you can see, servers are very flat: it is a unique server format (called “1U”). This allows them to be stacked in bays, i.e., a kind of air-conditioned server cabinet.

The role of the a web hosting company

The host is a company that manages server racks. It ensures that the servers are up and running 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Indeed, if one of them breaks down, all the sites on the machine become inaccessible (and that makes customers dissatisfied).

These bays are located in particular places called data centers. Data centers are thus in a way “server warehouses,” and their access is very protected.

Find a hosting provider.

Web hosts, unlike registrars, are offering their services everywhere on the web. There are all types, at all prices. There is a vocabulary to know to find you in their offers:

Shared hosting: if you opt for a shared hosting offer, your site will be placed on a server managing several sites at once (maybe a hundred, maybe more). This is the cheapest offer, and it is the one I recommend you aim for if you start your website.

Virtual dedicated hosting: this time, the server only manages very few sites (usually less than a dozen). This offer is generally adapted to sites which on the one hand can no longer fit on shared hosting because they have too much traffic (too many visitors), but which on the other hand cannot afford a dedicated hosting.

Dedicated hosting (also called “dedicated server”): it is the ultimate solution. The server only manages your site and no other. Attention, the costs are quite expensive and it is better to have knowledge of Linux to administer the server remotely.

Cloud Hosting: More and more trendy these days, it consists in sending your site on virtual servers. In fact, it is the equivalent of a virtual dedicated hosting, but with a whole bunch of services around it to make it easier for us to manage the network, databases, etc.. This is the trend for more and more medium and large websites.

Coding kids

Different Apps For Teaching Children Coding

It is difficult to imagine a career in today’s world that doesn’t require some coding. Every element in our digital world has some form of coding to make it operate. Coding, also known as programming, is all around us – this is why children need to be taught coding. Programming is no longer the realm of skinny 20-year-olds, but it is now possible for children to learn to code. This article will provide information on the different apps for teaching children coding.

App #1: Gamestar Mechanic

Gamestar Mechanic is a type of app that is available online and costs $2 per student. It is designed for children aged 7 to 14 and helps students build their video games. Students can enjoy completing various self-paced quests while continuing to build game levels. This app integrates problem-solving tasks with critical thinking. Embedded within Edmodo makes login simpler for students.

App #2: Scratch

Scratch is another type of app that is available online, but it is free for each student. Created by MIT staff and students in 2003, Scratch is one of the first programming apps created specifically for students aged 8 to 16. This app was originally used as a multi-platform download, but it developed into a web-based option to make the item more accessible.

Scratch utilizes a visual programming language credited with bricks that need to be dragged into a workspace, thus animating sprites. The different bricks create variables, trigger loops, play sounds, initiate interactivity, and do much more. Teaching communities, guides, and resources are part of the app and can help instruct the student in how to utilize the bricks.

App #3: Tynker

Tynker is an educational app that is similar to Scratch. It is available online and is free to use, but comes with a Premium upgrade alternative. The layout is almost identical to Scratch; however, where Scratch was developed to program, Tynker teaches children programming. This particular app presents with beginner lesson plans, an online showcase of student-developed programs, and management resources for the students. The lessons are self-paced and simple to follow so that the children can move through the lessons without any assistance.

App #4: Move The Turtle

Move The Turtle is a coding app available on the iOS platform and costs $2.99 to purchase. This is one of the more popular apps among Apple users because it utilizes a character to teach the children computer coding. As the student progresses through the levels, the game increases in difficulty. This means that they are presented with a new command to direct the turtle towards an element, such as a sound, star or line. Free play “compose” modes allow the pupils to move the turtle wherever they want, but this does not affect their position in the “game.”

App #5: Hopscotch

Another educational coding app available on an Apple device (the iPad), but that costs nothing is Hopscotch. This app appears similar to Scratch using controls to drag blocks into workspaces; however, it is run on an iPad and Scratch is web-based. Hopscotch is one of the basic apps to learn programming, problem-solving, and logical thinking. If the pupil wishes to learn more extensive coding, he or she will need to implement another app option.

coding free training

How To Find Sites That Will Teach You Coding For Free

Knowing how to code is something that has outstanding earning potential. There are many high-paying jobs in the IT industry, so there’s no wonder this has become such a desirable skill. If you also want to get a programming job, you need to choose a specific language and learn it very well. Unfortunately, such training is expensive, so you may want to start by finding some sites that will teach you coding for free. This article shows you how.

The first and foremost thing you need to do is to decide which language you’d like to learn. You can browse jobs websites, to assess the value of various coding skills and abilities. As a general rule, back-end developers earn more than front-end coding specialists. Nonetheless, if you want to have an easier time at learning how to code, you may want to go for PHP, JavaScript or Ruby on Rails. There are many free websites you can use to learn the basics of these languages.

top 4 websites to trainThe easiest way to find these sites is to perform a search in your favorite search engine, be it Yahoo, Bing, Google or Duck Duck Go. Don’t forget to include the name of the programming language you want to learn, as this can make a huge difference when it comes to the quality and the relevance of the results.

There’s no doubt you’re going to find at least a couple of websites to teach you coding for free. However, you’ll need to give them a try to find the one that suits you best. You may have to create a free user account, but this shouldn’t be a big problem. Just do it and follow a few lessons to see whether they deliver the information in a style that suits you.

The other method to learn to code for free is to join websites that teach you the skills you need, whether they are free or paid. Most of them allow you to cancel your membership within the first two weeks or one month, so you won’t have to spend a dime on your education, provided that you can learn the basics within this time frame. You may also want to keep an eye on the various promotions of teaching websites like Udemy. Sometimes they offer their courses for free for a limited time, to attract new users. All you have to do is to subscribe to their newsletters and watch your inbox. Next, take advantage of your free trial to learn whatever you want.

Always keep in mind that learning how to code isn’t too complicated, yet improving your skills takes much practice. You have to put your knowledge to good use by developing some cool projects. Like this, you’ll have the opportunity to deepen your knowledge, as you’ll need to find solutions to various problems and challenges that are inevitably going to occur. The more projects you tackle, the better you’re going to become. From this point on, you can safely start applying for coding jobs.

learn php quickly

Where To Find A Good Introduction To PHP Coding

PHP is one of the most sought-after programming languages. Many prominent websites use it, WordPress is based on it, so there no wonder PHP knowledgeable experts are in high demand. Such coding skills can land you a very nice job. What to do, though, when you have the desire to code but you lack the skills?

Today is a good day to start!

php code on websiteThe answer is simple; start learning PHP today, and you’ll benefit from it tomorrow. If you are a beginner, you should seek for an excellent introduction to PHP coding to start with. The good news is that you’ll find useful resources online. Many of them are free of change, so you won’t have to enroll in a paid course to learn this language. Just use your favorite search engine to see what you can find. Search for resources for beginners. It’s always better to start by learning the basics before moving on to more complicated things. Like this, you’ll have a solid foundation you’ll be able to build on. If you start by trying to understand complex functions, you may have a hard time at improving your coding abilities.

Once you find some websites where you can learn the basic syntax and the main PHP functions, you’ll need a project to implement them in. Without this, you’ll never learn proper coding, as you’ll forget everything very quickly. You need practice to fix the acquired skills in your brain and to learn how to overcome various challenges that may arise. If you don’t have a specific project to work on, you should seek for websites that enable you to write code and see the results on the spot. These websites provide the users two boxes, one for typing in the code, and the second one for viewing the result. This is an excellent method to debug your code without having to ask other coders for help.

Help is available everywhere

If you need help as you progress in your learning, you should search for blogs of professional coders and subscribe to their feeds or take a look inside their archives. You’ll find valuable bits of information that may help you solve various problems and debug your code. PHP is relatively easy to learn and understand in comparison with other programming languages.

If learning online isn’t your cup of tea, you may want to search for some PHP coding books for beginners. These books have a significant advantage that they include exercises and tutorials. By doing these exercises, you can understand even complex functions of the PHP language. Nonetheless, you have to be genuinely motivated to stick to these exercises until you understand all the code in detail.

Last but not least, don’t forget that you have many affordable options for online courses. You can find such a resource on Udemy and many other similar websites. These video tutorials are usually excellent, as experts create them with many years of coding and thousands of projects in their work portfolios. Join them and learn PGP coding from the best.

passwords and encryption

Secure passwords with hashes and salts

As we all know, the purpose of a password is above all to remain known to a person or a group of persons. Its disclosure then leads to the complete loss of its effectiveness and safety. When the password becomes known to a third party, the latter may, for example, appropriate rights over an application and compromise its normal operation. A password is extremely sensitive and coveted by hackers, regardless of the application that uses it.

What is a password?

Metaphorically, a password can be perceived as a critical opening door(s) to the one who holds it. Thus, this user appropriates additional rights that other people do not have. It is then up to him not to disclose it so that an evil third party does not misappropriate the privileges conferred on him.

When one / several passwords must be saved in an information system (database, configuration files…), it becomes more complicated. Indeed, security is only for one person but now depends on the security of the information system itself (physical access, identifiers to connect to it) as well as on the way these passwords are stored in the IS.

Password security in an information system

It is evident that increased password protection in the information system must be put in place. The storage of passwords in clear text in the information system then becomes impossible. Why? Why? Let us take the typical case of a database in which are stored the identifiers of the users of an extranet of a company. This implies that there is a security policy with several levels of rights.

A technician will not have the same privileges on the application as his superior. The latter will also not have the same rights as the Director of Human Resources or the CEO. In this type of application, the password is the guarantor of data security. We must, therefore, protect it assiduously. Encryption then becomes indispensable.

Why encrypt sensitive data?

The answer is simple. This is to keep confidential the password that has been assigned to the user outside of the application. There is also a part of deontology insofar as even the person in charge of the application should not have to know the personal identifiers of the users. It’s none of his business. Let us return to our example.

Extranet also means access to the application from the Internet. The data must then be encrypted via a secure HTTPS connection and the application protected against possible hacker access. Let us suppose that this extranet was poorly written and that it contains a SQL injection flaw. A hacker could then retrieve the passwords stored in the database and enter the application without any problem with the CEO’s credentials. If passwords are encrypted, it will be much harder for the hacker to retrieve their plaintext match. In this example, the attack comes from the outside but what if the weakness of the system is inside?

Indeed, let us suppose that it is necessary to maintain the database by connecting directly to it. The company that edited the application sends its database administrator into intervention. This technician intervenes on the spot but is not at all part of the company which uses the application. She’s going to manipulate the database. That is, she will most likely be able to see everything inside… including the login credentials. If the passwords had been recorded in plain text, he could have appropriated the accesses of any user on the extranet application… Nevertheless, nothing prevents him from creating a new user with all the rights directly in the database. We will, therefore, see later that traditional encryption is not enough to strengthen the security of a password.

Encryption methods

There are many of them. This can range from encryption algorithms (which can be decrypted with the appropriate algorithm and key) to hash algorithms. It is the latter that we tend to use today. Indeed, a hash algorithm can encrypt a string without the possibility of reverse operation. The hash result usually produces a single, fixed-length string. This is the case, for example, with MD5 and SHA1 algorithms. Thus, during an authentication phase, two passwords are no longer compared in plain text but two hashes of the password.


Migration from PHP 4 to PHP 5

PHP 4 support is a thing of the past. It is therefore becoming urgent to migrate to PHP 5 because in 2008 no new version of PHP 4 will be released (support will still be provided on security vulnerabilities until 08/08/2008).

The compatibility between PHP 5 and PHP 4 has been a major concern during the development of PHP 5, and a large majority of applications should be able to run on PHP 5 without problems, or require only minor modifications. There are however some differences and we will try to summarize them here to allow you a simple migration.

Why migrate?

New features
Better performance
Better security
Better stability
PHP 5 is strongly supported

What has changed with PHP 5?

the redesign of the PHP core which allows a complete support of object-oriented programming
XML support redesign
SQLite embedded database integration
integration of new extensions (JSON, Filter, ZIP, …)
the emergence of a common basis for managing database calls: PHP Data Object (PDO)
the use of object reflection ( introspection)
exceptions have appeared in PHP5
an E_STRICT error level has been added
appearance of the SPL (Standard PHP Library), a collection of useful internal classes

Although most existing PHP 4 scripts should work, it is worth noting some major differences that can lead to errors or different behaviors:

Object management (referencing)
the redesign of DOM support with the abandonment of the DomXML extension
MySQL extension is no longer included by default
new error mode E_STRICT
The new object model

The main novelty of PHP 5 is certainly the new object model. Object processing has been completely rewritten to achieve better performance and more functionality. To date the object model of PHP 5 is close to that of Java, it thus results from it a certain number of innovations: magic methods, visibility, (was already present in PHP4, the novelty it is the destroyer or more generally the magic methods), encapsulation, cloning, interfaces, abstract classes…

Objects are passed by reference

In PHP 4 the entire object was copied when it was assigned or passed as a parameter to a function. In PHP 5 objects are referenced by a pointer and not their value (one can think of a pointer as an object identifier).

Pass an object by reference

Objects are no longer passed by value but by reference. The result is that once transmitted to a function, a PHP 5 object will see its values evolve while in PHP 4 it is a copy that will be modified within the function, the original object will remain unchanged.

In PHP 4 to make an object pass as reference we could do it by prefixing the variable with the sign”&”. Test our Xxxx example by removing the”&” in the declaration of the “fctActionObject()” function, you will see that in one case the”$b” object is modified and in the other it is not (and because the modification was made on a temporary copy).